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Pattern Principles and Definitions




Essential information about patterns


  • Pattern should begin and end exactly at the same spot. This will indicate the performers accuracy.

  • Correct posture and facing must be maintained at all times.

  • Muscles of the body hsould be either tensed or relaxed at the proper critical moments in the exercise.

  • The exercise should be performed in a rhythmic movement with an absence of stiffness.

  • Movement should be accelerated or decelerated according to instructions indicated in Patterns Instructions.

  • Each pattern should be perfected before moving to the next.

  • Students should know the purpose of each movement.

  • Students should perform each movement with realism.


Four Directions


Saju Jirugi simply means Four Direction Punch. Saju refers to “Four Directions” whereas the word Jirugi means “punch”.


  • 1. Parallel ready stance raise left hand aiming at solar plexus level, move the right foot to D, forming a right walking stance toward D while executing a middle punch to D with the right fist.

  • 2. Move the right foot to A, forming a left walking stance toward B while executing a low block to B with the left forearm.

  • 3. Raise left hand and move the right foot to B, forming a right walking stance toward B while executing a middle punch to B with the right fist.

  • 4. Move the right foot to D, forming a left walking stance toward C while executing a low block to C with the left forearm.

  • 5. Raise left hand and move the right foot to C, forming a right walking stance toward C while executing a middle punch to C with the right fist.

  • 6. Move the right foot to B, forming a left walking stance toward A while executing a low block to A with the left forearm.

  • 7. Raise left hand and move the right foot to A, forming a right walking stance toward A while executing a middle punch to A with the right fist.

  • 8. Bring the right foot back to a ready posture.

  • 9. Repeat in opposite direction with opposite hands and feet.







Belt Rank Meanings and Definitions



Orange Belt


Chon-Ji means literally “Heaven and Earth”. It is, in the Orient, interpreted as the creation of the world or the beginning of human history. Therefore, it is the initial pattern played by the beginner. This pattern consists of two similar parts, one to represent Heaven, the other Earth. 19 Movements.


Yellow Belt

Dan-Gun is named after the holy Dan-Gun, the legendary founder of Korea in the year 2333 BC. 21 Movements.


Lime Green Belt

Do-San is the pseudonym of the patriot Ahn Chang-Ho (1876-1938) who devoted his entire life to furthering the education of Korea and its independence movement. 24 Movements.


Dark Green Belt

Won-Hyo was the noted monk who introduced Buddhism to the Silla Dynasty in the year 686 AD. 28 Movements.


Purple Belt

Yul-Gok is the pseudonym of a great philosopher and scholar Yi I (1536-1584) nicknamed the “Confucius of Korea”. The 38 movements of this pattern refer to his birthplace on the 38th latitude and the diagram (+ over – or plus-minus) represents “scholar.” 38 Movements.


Blue Belt

Joong-Gun is named after the patriot Ahn Joong-Gun who assassinated Hiro- Bumi Ito, the first Japanese governor-general of Korea, known as the man who played the leading part in the Korea-Japan merger. There are 32 movements in this pattern to represent Mr. Ahn’s age when he was executed at Lui-Shung prison (1910). 32 Movements.


Brown Belt

Toi-Gye is the pen name of the noted scholar Yi Hwang (16th century), an authority of neo-Confucianism. The 37 movements of the pattern refer to his birthplace on the 37th latitude. The diagram (+) represents “scholar.” 37 Movements.


Red Belt

Hwa-Rang is named after the Hwa-Rang youth group which originated in the Silla Dynasty in the early 7th century. The 29 movements refer to the 29th infantry division, where Tae Kwon-Do developed into maturity. 29 Movements.


Black Stripe

Choong-Moo was the name given to the great Admiral Yi Soon-Sin of the Yi Dynasty. He was reputed to have invented the first armored battleship (Kobukson) in 1592, which is said to be the precursor of the present- day submarine. The reason why this pattern ends with a left hand attack is to symbolize his regrettable death, having no chance to show his unrestrained potentiality checked by the forced reservation of his of his loyalty to the king. 30 movements.


1st Dan

Ge-Baek is named after Ge-Baek, a great general in the Baek Je Dynasty Dynasty (660 AD). The diagram (|) represents his severe and strict military discipline. 44 Movements.


1st Dan

Kwang-Gae is named after the famous Kwang-Gae-Toh-Wang, the 19th King of the Koguryo Dynasty, who regained all the lost territories including the greater part of Manchuria. The diagram ( + ) represents the expansion and recovery of lost territory. The 39 movements refer to the first two figures of 391 AD, the year he came to the throne.39 Movements.


1st Dan

Po-Eun is the pseudonym of a loyal subject Chong Mong-Chu (1400) who was a famous poet and whose poem “I would not serve a second master though I might be crucified a hundred times” is known to every Korean. He was also a pioneer in the field of physics. The diagram (—-) represents his unerring loyalty to the king and country towards the end of the Koryo Dynasty. 36 Movements.


2nd Dan

Choong-Jang is the pseudonym given to General Kim Duk Ryang who lived during the Yi Dynasty, 14th century. This pattern ends with a left- hand attack to symbolize the tragedy of his death at 27 in prison before he was able to reach full maturity. 52 Movements.


2nd Dan

Eui-Am is the pseudonym of Son Byong Hi, leader of the Korean Independence Movement on March 1, 1919. The 45 movements refer to his age when he changed the name of Dong Hak (Oriental Culture) to Chondo Kyo (Heavenly Way Religion) in 1905. The diagram for this pattern represents his indomitable spirit, which he displayed while dedicating himself to the prosperity of his nation. 45 Movements.


2nd Dan

Ko-Dang is the pseudonym of the partiot Cho Man Sik who dedicated his life to the independence movement and education of Korea. The 39 movements of hte pattern, show the number of times of his imprisonment. 39 Movements.


3rd Dan

Yoo-Sin is named after General Kim Yoo- Sin, a commanding general during the Silla Dynasty. The 68 movements refer to the last two figures of 668 A. D., the year Korea was united. The ready posture signifies a sword drawn on the right rather than left side. This symbolizing Yoo- Sin’s mistake of following his king’s orders to fight with foreign forces against his own nation. 68 Movements.


3rd Dan

Sam-Il denotes the historical date of the Independence Movement of Korea which began throughout the country on March 1, 1919. The 33 movements in the pattern stand for the 33 patriots who planned the movement. 33 Movements.


3rd Dan

Choi-Yong is named after General Choi Yong, Premier and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces during the 14th Century Koryo Dynasty. Choi Yong was greatly respected for his loyalty, patriotism, and humility. He was executed by his subordinate commanders headed by General Yi Sung Gae. General Yi later become the first king of the Yi Dynasty. 46 Movements.

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